A Ranker World of Comedy Opinion Graph: Who Connects the Funny Universe?

In the previous post, we showed how a Gephi layout algorithm was able to capture different domains in the world of comedy across all of the Ranker lists tagged with the word “funny”.  However, these algorithms also give us information about the roles that individuals play within clusters. The size of the node indicates that node’s ability to connect other nodes, so bigger nodes indicate individuals who serve as a gateway between different nodes and categories.  These are the nodes that you would want to target if you wanted to reach the broadest audience, as people who like these comedic individuals also like many others.  Sort of like having that one friend who knows everyone send out the event invite instead of having to send it to a smaller group of friends in your own social network and hoping it gets around. So who connects the comedic universe?

The short answer: Dave Chappelle (click to enlarge)

Chappelle

Dave Chappelle is the superconnector. He has both the largest number of direct connections and the largest number of overall connections. If you want to reach the most people, go to him. If you want to connect people between different kinds of comedy, go to him.  He is the center of the comedic universe. He’s not the only one with connections though.

Top 10 Overall Connectors

  1. Dave Chappelle 
  2. Eddie Izzard 
  3. John Cleese 
  4. Ricky Gervais
  5. Rowan Atkinson
  6. Eric Idle
  7. Billy Connolly
  8. Bill Hicks
  9. It’s Always Sunny In Philadelphia
  10. Sarah Silverman

 

We can also look at who the biggest connectors are between different comedy domains.

  • Contemporary TV Shows: It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, ALF, and The Daily Show are the strongest connectors. They provide bridges to all 6 other comedy domains.
  • Contemporary Comedians on American Television: Dave Chappelle, Eddie Izzard and Ricky Gervais are the strongest connectors. They provide bridges to all 6 other comedy domains.
  •  Classic Comedians: John Cleese and Eric Idle are the strongest connectors. They provide bridges to all 6 other comedy domains.
  • Classic TV Shows: The Muppet Show and Monty Python’s Flying Circus are the strongest connectors. They provide bridges to Classic TV Comedians, Animated TV shows, and Classic Comedy Movies.
  • British Comedians: Rowan Atkinson is the strongest connector. He serves as a bridge to all of the other 6 comedy domains.
  • Animated TV Shows: South Park is the strongest connector. It serves as a bridge to Classic Comedians, Classic TV Shows, and British Comedians.
  • Classic Comedy Movies: None of the nodes in this domain were strong connectors to other domains, though National Lampoon’s Christmas Vacation was the strongest node in this network.

 

 

A Ranker Opinion Graph of the Domains of the World of Comedy

One unique aspect of Ranker data is that people rank a wide variety of lists, allowing us to look at connections beyond the scope of any individual topic.  We compiled data from all of the lists on Ranker with the word “funny” to get a bigger picture of the interconnected world of comedy.  Using Gephi layout algorithms, we were able to create an Opinion Graph which categorizes comedy domains and identify points of intersection between them (click to make larger).

all3sm

In the following graphs, colors indicate different comedic categories that emerged from a cluster analysis, and the connecting lines indicate correlations between different nodes with thicker lines indicating stronger relationships.  Circles (or nodes) that are closest together are most similar.  The classification algorithm produced 7 comedy domains:

 

CurrentTVwAmerican TV Shows and Characters: 26% of comedy, central nodes =  It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, ALF, The Daily Show, Chappelle’s Show, and Friends.

NowComedianwContemporary Comedians on American Television: 25% of nodes, includes Dave Chappelle, Eddie Izzard, Ricky Gervais, Billy Connolly, and Bill Hicks.

 

ClassicComedianswClassic Comedians: 15% of comedy, central nodes = John Cleese, Eric Idle, Michael Palin, Charlie Chaplin, and George Carlin.

ClassicTVClassic TV Shows and Characters: 14% of comedy, central nodes = The Muppet Show, Monty Python’s Flying Circus, In Living Color, WKRP in Cincinnati, and The Carol Burnett Show.

BritComwBritish Comedians: 9% of comedy, central nodes = Rowan Atkinson, Jennifer Saunders, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, and Dawn French.

AnimwAnimated TV Shows and Characters: 9% of comedy, central nodes = South Park, Family Guy, Futurama, The Simpsons, and Moe Szyslak.

MovieswClassic Comedy Movies: 1.5% of comedy, central nodes = National Lampoon’s Christmas Vacation, Ghostbusters, Airplane!, Vacation, and Caddyshack.

 

 

Clusters that are the most similar (most overlap/closest together):

  • Classic TV Shows and Contemporary TV Shows
  • British Comedians and Classic TV shows
  • British Comedians and Contemporary Comedians on American Television
  • Animated TV Shows and Contemporary TV Shows

Clusters that are the most distinct (lest overlap/furthest apart):

  • Classic Comedy Movies do not overlap with any other comedy domains
  • Animated TV Shows and British Comedians
  • Contemporary Comedians on American Television and Classic TV Shows

 

Take a look at our follow-up post on the individuals who connect the comedic universe.

– Kate Johnson

 

Changes in Opinion for House of Cards, The Walking Dead, Mad Men, & Workaholics

One of the coolest things about Ranker is the fact that Ranker votes are recorded in real time as they happen, allowing the potential for it to track changes in people’s opinions. A list like, “The Best Shows Currently on Air” generates heavy traffic due to the popularity of television shows on air and online. A certain television show can amass an impressive, almost cult-like, following and it’s interesting to see how public opinions change over time, why, and if it corresponds to changes happening in the real-world.

The figure below shows the pattern of change in the proportion of up-votes for the TV shows in this list, and highlights four shows: House of Cards, The Walking Dead, Mad Men, and Workaholics.

tv_show_house_of_cards_change

There is a steep decline in the proportion of up votes in December of 2013 for the House of Cards. Interestingly, this was during an interim period between seasons where seemingly nothing significant relating to the show was occurring. A plausible explanation could be due to a ceiling effect as there were few up votes and no down votes until that time. When a show first gets on a Ranker list, it often is only voted on by the fans of that show. As the show is only accessible through Netflix, the viewing audience is significantly smaller than cable or network Television shows, so that may further skew the number of people who knew enough about the show to consider downvoting it. Fascinatingly enough, in the same month, during a televised meeting with tech industry CEOs on NSA surveillance, President Obama expressed his love for the show stating “I wish things were that ruthlessly efficient,” adding that Rep. Frank Underwood, played by Kevin Spacey, “is getting a lot of stuff done”. Could the increase in downvotes be due to certain members of the public expressing their opinions about the President through the voting patterns on The House of Cards on Ranker?
The entire second season of The House of Cards was released on February 14th on Netflix in the same binge-watching format as the first season, which garnered positive reviews. Interestingly, there is a significant decline in proportion of up votes for The House of Cards from February 2014 to April 2014, however viewership of season two was much higher than season one based on early reviews. The show also garnered critical acclaim for season two earning thirteen Primetime Emmy Award nominations for the 66th Primetime Emmy Awards, and three nominations at both the 72nd Golden Globe Awards and the 21st Screen Actors Guild Awards. Given the viewership ratings and critical success, it may seem surprising to see such a steep drop in votes. But in looking at Ranker data, it is often common for shows to get more downvotes over time as they get better known, as people rarely downvote things they haven’t heard of, even as a show also receives more upvotes. This is why our algorithms take into account both the volume and proportion of upvotes vs. downvotes.
Shows that are more readily accessible may exhibit less of a ceiling effect early on, as there is a greater likelihood of people watching the show who aren’t specifically looking for it. Looking at Mad Men and The Walking Dead, there is a steady increase in up-vote proportion over the span that votes were submitted from June 2013 to last month, April 2015. The Walking Dead is the most watched drama series telecast in basic cable history, making it reasonable to assume that the reason for the continual increases are due to the increasing number of fans of the show who vote for it as the “Best Show Currently on Air”. Mad Men fans had similar voting patterns.

For a show like Workaholic, which airs on Comedy Central, there is a significantly smaller viewing audience compared to national networks, and they do not have the fanbase power of House of Cards or The Walking Dead. However, it is a show with positive reviews and a steady following of loyal fans. Though it is not as popular as other shows airing, it’s proven to be a show with comedic talent that generates positive sentiments amongst its viewers and a growing proportion of up-votes.
While these examples are only suggestive, the enormous number of votes made by Ranker uses, and the variety of topics they cover, makes the possibility of measuring opinions, and detecting and understanding change in opinions, an intriguing one that is worth continuing to expand upon.
-Emily Liu

by    in Opinion Graph, Ranker Comics

A Cluster Analysis of the Superpower Opinion Graph produces 5 Superhero types

If you could have one superpower, which would you choose?  Data from the Ranker list “Badass Superpowers We’d Give Anything to Have” improves on the age-old classroom ice breaker question by letting people rank all of the superpowers in order of how much they would want them.  Because really, unless you’re one of the X-men, you probably would have more than one power. So, if you could have a collection of superpowers, what kind of superhero would you be?

Using Gephi and data from Ranker’s Opinion Graph, we ran a cluster analysis on people’s votes on the superpowers list to determine what groupings of superpowers different people wanted.

This analysis grouped superpowers into 5 clusters, which we interpreted to represent unique superhero types.

 

The Overall Superpower Opinion Graph

Allpowers

 

 

The 5 Types of Superheroes

    god

1. The Creationist God: This superhero type is characterized by creation and destruction, Old-Testament Christian God-style. Notable superpowers: the ability to create/destroy worlds, die and come back to life, have gods’ weapons (Thor’s Hammer, Zeus’ Thunderbolt), remove others’ senses, and resurrect the dead.

timelord

2. The Time Lord: This superhero type is basically The Doctor from Dr. Who. Notable superpowers: omnipotence, travel to other dimensions, open portals to anywhere, and travel beyond the omniverse.

elementalist

3. The Elementalist: This superhero type has the ability to manipulate the elements and use them as weapons to their advantage. Notable superpowers: manipulation of water, fire, weather, and plants, ability to shapeshift, shoot ice, and lightning and fire.

superman

4. The Superhuman: This superhero type is humans+, with enhanced human senses and decreased human limitations. Notable superpowers: sense danger, x-ray vision, walk through walls, super speed, mind reading, flight, super strength, and enhanced flexibility.

zen

5. The Zen Master: This superhero type sounds a bit like being permanently on mind-altering psychoactive substances crossed with Gandhi. Notable superpowers: speech empowerment, spiritual enlightenment, and infinite appetite!!.

 

-Kate Johnson

by    in Data Science, Pop Culture, prediction

Ranker Predicts Spurs to beat Cavaliers for 2015 NBA Championship

The NBA Season starts tonight and building on the proven success of our World Cup and movie box office predictions, as well as the preliminary success of our NFL predictions, Ranker is happy to announce our 2015 NBA Championship Predictions, based upon the aggregated data from basketball fans who have weighed in on our NBA and basketball lists.

Ranker's 2015 NBA Championship Predictions as Compared to ESPN and FiveThirtyEight
Ranker’s 2015 NBA Championship Predictions as Compared to ESPN and FiveThirtyEight

For comparison’s sake, I included the current ESPN power rankings as well as FiveThirtyEight’s teams that have the most percentage chance of winning the championship.  As with any sporting event, chance will play a large role in the outcome, but the premise of producing our predictions regularly is to validate our belief that the aggregated opinions of many will generally outperform expert opinions (ESPN) or models based on non-opinion data (e.g. player performance data plays a large role in FiveThirtyEight’s predictions).  Our ultimate goal is to prove the utility of crowdsourced data, as while something like NBA predictions is a crowded space where many people attempt to answer this question, Ranker produces the world’s only significant data model for equally important questions, such as determining the world’s best DJseveryone’s biggest turn-ons or the best cheeses for a grilled cheese sandwich.

– Ravi Iyer

by    in Ranker Comics

What Abraham Lincoln Would’ve Said About Ranker Comics If He Were Still Alive (And, You Know, a Comics Fan)

by Ranky (said in the voice of Abraham Lincoln)

Four score and seven days ago, our Ranker fathers brought forth on this continent Ranker Comics, a new and mighty crowdsourced opinion subsite on the entire comic book universe, conceived in fandom, and dedicated to the ludicrous proposition that all opinions on Batman are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war between DC Comics and Marvel, testing whether that Ranker Comics nation, or any Ranker.com subsite so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war: our parents basements. We have come to dedicate a portion of the Ranker site as a final resting place for all 17 fans of Aquaman who here gave their opinions, so that Ranker Comics might live to finally find out who would win in a fight between The Hulk and Superman. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this, considering that Ranker.com has 17 million uniques and 6 million votes per month.

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground without the explicit authorization of Mom (it’s her house). The brave Cheetos, Queso and Flaming Hot, who were eaten here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract the 317 irritating times Jean Grey died. The world will little note, nor long remember what other comic book websites say, but it will never forget what Ranker Comics did here.

It is for us the stay at home fans, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work of deciding which superhero had the most “emo moment,” a critical issue which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us fans to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us (besides moving out): that from these honored geek battles we take increased devotion to the DC v. Marvel debates for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these Ranker Comics voters shall not have voted in vain—that this Ranker Comics nation, under The Living Room, shall have a new birth of fandom—and that comic book opinions of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.Screen Shot 2014-09-11 at 4.11.01 PM

by    in Data Science, Pop Culture, prediction

Comparing World Cup Prediction Algorithms – Ranker vs. FiveThirtyEight

Like most Americans, I pay attention to soccer/football once every four years.  But I think about prediction almost daily and so this year’s World Cup will be especially interesting to me as I have a dog in this fight.  Specifically, UC-Irvine Professor Michael Lee put together a prediction model based on the combined wisdom of Ranker users who voted on our Who will win the 2014 World Cup list, plus the structure of the tournament itself.  The methodology runs in contrast to the FiveThirtyEight model, which uses entirely different data (national team results plus the results of players who will be playing for the national team in league play) to make predictions.  As such, the battle lines are clearly drawn.  Will the Wisdom of Crowds outperform algorithmic analyses based on match results?  Or a better way of putting it might be that this is a test of whether human beings notice things that aren’t picked up in the box scores and statistics that form the core of FiveThirtyEight’s predictions or sabermetrics.

So who will I be rooting for?  Both methodologies agree that Brazil, Germany, Argentina, and Spain are the teams to beat.  But the crowds believe that those four teams are relatively evenly matched while the FiveThirtyEight statistical model puts Brazil as having a 45% chance to win.  After those first four, the models diverge quite a bit with the crowd picking the Netherlands, Italy, and Portugal amongst the next few (both models agree on Colombia), while the FiveThirtyEight model picks Chile, France, and Uruguay.  Accordingly, I’ll be rooting for the Netherlands, Italy, and Portugal and against Chile, France, and Uruguay.

In truth, the best model would combine the signal from both methodologies, similar to how the Netflix prize was won or how baseball teams combine scout and sabermetric opinions.  I’m pretty sure that Nate Silver would agree that his model would be improved by adding our data (or similar data from betting markets like Betfair that similarly thought that FiveThirtyEight was underrating Italy and Portugal) and vice versa.  Still, even as I know that chance will play a big part in the outcome, I’m hoping Ranker data wins in this year’s world cup.

– Ravi Iyer

Ranker’s Pre-Tournament Predictions:

FiveThirtyEight’s Pre-Tournament Predictions:

by    in Game of Thrones, Popular Lists

Hypocritical Politicians, Birthday Fails & HODOR!!

In case you missed these gems, here are some of our favorite lists y’all have been ranking this month. Enjoy!

Introducing: Ranker of Thrones
All Men Must Rank. Visit our ‘Game of Thrones’ hub for interactive GoT content you won’t find anywhere else on the web. Rank the most epic insults in Westeros, listen to original GoT songs, and ponder which cats actually look like characters from the show. Stop by and get your Hodor fix. Hodor!

16 Prominent Anti-Gay Activists Who Were Caught Being Gay
Lots of hypocrites out there, ladies and gentlemen. This week, news broke that Steve Wiles, an anti-gay GOP Senate candidate, used to be an openly-gay drag queen named Miss Mona Sinclair. Thank goodness for the Internet.

40 Hilarious Birthday Fails/Wins
These photos prove that just because it’s your special day, doesn’t mean that you’re safe from your crazy relatives.

Simpsons Jokes That Actually Came True in Real Life
We’ve always loved how ‘The Simpsons’ riffs on current events and pop culture, but we never thought that real life would follow in the footsteps of the show. Weird.

The 13 Craziest Deaths Caused by Social Media
Everyone is guilty of doing their fair share of internet sleuthing, stalking, creeping, and… killing? Well, at least these 13 people are. Read about the weird, effed up things people are doing through social media these days.

Baby Animals That Could Melt the Coldest of Hearts (Photos)
Adorable baby animals: everyone loves them. But which type are actually the cutest? Until now, science has had no way to decide… but with your help, we may have the found the answer.

That’s it! Stay in touch, and we hope you’re having a great month!

by    in Game of Thrones

Gender and the Moral Psychology of Game of Thrones

Most of my published academic work is in the field of moral psychology, where we study the moral reasoning behind judgments of right and wrong.  As I have previously argued, such study does not belong solely in the realm of university psychology labs, but also should be extended to the realm of “big data”, where online behavior is examined for convergence with what we see in the lab.  Ranker collects millions of user opinions each month on all sorts of topics, and one of them, where users rank the most uncomfortable moments in Game of Thrones, is actually very similar to psychology studies where we ask participants to rate the rightness or wrongness of various situations.

Amongst the situations to be voted on are:

  • Graphic Violence (Khaleesi Eats a Horse Heart, Execution of Eddard Stark)
  • Incest (Lannister Family Values, Theon Makes a Pass at Sister)
  • Sexual Violence (Danerys And Viserys, Jamie Rapes His Sister)
  • Homosexuality (Loras and Renly Shave and Scheme)

Men and women were equally likely to vote on items on this list (each gender averaged six votes per user), but women were twice as likely to be affected by sexual violence toward women, including Viserys’ lude treatment of his sister Danerys or The Red Wedding, which included the stabbing of a pregnant woman, than were men.  In contrast, men were made most uncomfortable by hints of homosexuality (Loras and Renly shaving each other’s chests), being seven times more likely to find this scene uncomfortable.  These patterns are convergent with research on mirror neurons, which indicate that people are most likely to be made uncomfortable by situations that threaten their self-identity, as well as accounts of women being driven to stop watching the show, due to the prevalence of depictions of violence against women.

Other patterns on this list also converged with previous research.  Americans, who may be less sensitive to violence due to its prevalence in American culture, were less affected by scenes such as the execution of Eddard Stark and Khaleesi eating a horse heart.  Southerners, who are more likely to be sensitive to purity concerns, were more affected by Petyr Baelish and Lord Varys’ discussion of perversity.

None of these findings are carefully controlled trials, so these patterns could have many explanations.  However, all research methods have flaws, and I would argue that it is the convergence of real world behavior with academic research that leads to true understanding.  Given Ranker’s new emphasis on Game of Thrones related content (like our Ranker of Thrones Facebook page if you’re a fan), more analyses of the repeated moral ambiguity in Game of Thrones are forthcoming and I would welcome new hypotheses to test.  What would you expect men/women to agree or disagree on?  Older vs. Younger fans?  West coasters vs. East Coasters?

– Ravi Iyer

by    in Data, Game of Thrones

Game of Thrones: Don’t Get Too Comfortable

[Spoiler Alert: This post contains references to Seasons 1-4, Episode 3 of the show. There are no references to the books. If you’re all caught up on the show, then you are safe!]

fans react

Have you recently found yourself unreasonably happy about a certain child’s death? Excited, even, to watch the bile frothing out of his mouth and the blood streaming from the far corners of his eyes? Have you rationalized incest-rape and chalked it up to the pressures of the times? Rejoiced as a small girl murders a man in cold blood? (Something wrong with your leg, boy?)

Don’t get too comfortable.

Now that you’re fully immersed in the world of the Seven Kingdoms, your capacity for moral relativism may surprise you. You may feel like nothing on the show could totally shock or upset you anymore. Now that you’re sort of OK with incest-rape, should you just hang up your hat and quit? Can’t anything feel uncomfortable or shocking anymore?!

Don’t worry: If we’ve learned anything about this series so far, there will be plenty of horrific incidents to come. And according to our data, there is pretty much something on the show to upset every sensibility.

We were looking at our list of The Most Uncomfortable Game of Thrones Moments again (weird, we know — we like to keep the wounds fresh) and noticed an interesting pattern in our data that gives us an insight on what makes certain viewers uncomfortable. So far, over 1,000 people have voted on this list an average of 5 times. There are 18 uncomfortable moments to choose from, and they are ordered from jaw-dropping to ain’t-no-thing. (Vote if you haven’t already. It’s fun!)

As more and more people vote, some interesting correlations have emerged.

TheonFor example, Ranker users who said that they were very uncomfortable when Theon Greyjoy lost his “most prized possession” were far more likely to also feel uncomfortable when Jaime Lannister’s right hand was cut off. Jaime
A particular distaste for bodily harm, it would seem.

[In plain English: The majority of people who hated watching that first scene also hated watching the second. Most people who didn’t mind the first also didn’t mind the second.]

But there’s more. Two main “camps” of voters emerged in our data. We’ll call them “Camp Emotional” and “Camp Physical.

People who voted for one thing that could be considered emotionally distressing — witnessing an incest scene between brother and sister, for example — were highly likely to also vote for other moments that can be associated with emotional distress: Lysa Tully’s disturbing breastfeeding scene and Viserys Targaryan’s willingness to whore out his own sister in exchange for power both come to mind.

Similarly, people who voted on one item in “Camp Physical” were more likely to vote on other physically revolting scenes. Viserys Targaryen getting “crowned,” Khaleesi eating a horse heart, and the execution of Eddard Stark were all positively correlated.

Disgusting GoT Tastes Graph smaller 500

The “Game of Thrones” show creators certainly have their bases covered as far as upsetting every sensibility.

Don’t mind a six year-old suckling on the teat of his mother? Maybe your favorite character will be brutally executed. Don’t think the gory stuff is that big of a deal? Maybe a character you thought you trusted will double-cross his sister, have sex with his mother, and steal the crown for himself. This is all just speculation, of course, but we’re just saying: no one is safe. Not even you. 

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